امام علی عليه ‏السلام :
بخشش كارگزاران از اموال مسلمانان، ظلم و خيانت است.


                
  Studying the factors affecting the strategic management of human resources (case study of the municipality of Qazvin)

 

Javad Mehrabi [1], Hassan Ali Norouzi  [2      

 

1 Department of Management,Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran  2 Department of Management,Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran 

 

 

Abstract

 

Today, human resources play a strategic role in organizations. Changes in the working environment can affect the result of available functions, shareholders and the company's strategies. Human resources play an important role in observing and working combined positions, motivation of the performance of employees, increasing the ability of staff, and the creation of collaborative teams that consider their views and use them to achieve their goals. The present study examined the factors affecting the strategic management of human resources in the municipality of Qazvin. In the research aspects such as relationships with employees on providing human resources management, performance measurement and reward, and etc., were investigated. The present research is survey and applied and data collection was through using 160 questionnaires carried out by employees of the municipality of Qazvin.  To check the visual validity of the content, and its reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. Also SPSS software, t test, Friedmann and Smirnov were applied. The results suggest a significant impact of organizational, personal, occupational factors on environmental strategic management.

 

Keywords: strategic management, human resources, strategic planning

 

2. Statement of Problem

 

 Nowadays accomplishment of development in the countries requires extensive planning to use all resources, especially human resources and with proper management and optimal use of it, create maximum value in the national level.On the other hand the growth and dynamics of municipalities and councils in the Islamic homeland, has brought knowledge, skills, experience and numerous innovations in the field of human resource management, which correct and timely use of them will lead to excellence of the municipalities and councils.Also, the improvement the status of municipalities and councils in the country requires serious attention to human capital. In recent years, the most important concern for most organizations is design, development and implementation of human resource management strategies that guarantees their success and survival in a changing and complex environment conditions. In the world of business, human resources are considered as major capital for organizations along with IT, financial resources, etc., and in fact, is an essential component of any organization in fulfilling the strategies and achievement of goals. Lack of attention to human resources by some companies is because in these companies humans are considered as an operating expense rather than as a source or major investments. Also they look at human resources planning as a short term executive issue. Not as a driving force for the strategic plans of all programs in human resources are set in that format and coordination.Obviously, in case of appropriate strategy formulation for human resources, designing identification systems, absorption, education, remuneration, promotion, retention and welfare of employees, can be realized in a coordinated set with maximum productivity. Or in case of the existence of these systems, there be a professional basis to improve each one of them. Nowadays having creative and powerful staff, is an important and valuable asset for any organization that can provide more competition and further advance. Therefore, it is obvious that managers should consider strategic development of human resource as a means to achieve the goals of their organizations which regards all aspects of human affairs and comprehensive employee empowerment in the workplace. Although the recent "management approach to strategic planning of human resource development has increased, however, in practice, many organizations are still unable to achieve their ideals in the field of human resources development,  sometimes the strategies of these organizations no matter how good, face failure.In fact one of the reasons for failure of these strategies is the lack of attention of the managers to a variety of factors that affect the strategies.The main concern of researcher who conducted this study is to find what factors contribute to the improvement of strategic management in Qazvin municipality and he wants to identify these factors and try to provide solutions in case of existence of problems in this area and Qazvin municipality can use the results to solve management problems.

 

3. Importance and necessity of research: the success of any organization depends on the allocation of appropriate use of the organization's human resources. This would be possible when these organizations use the skills and individual and collective capabilities and characteristics of their employees in line with the goals of the organization.Universities, scientific and literary associations, government organizations, religious institutions and organizations and so on are looking for maximum efficiency for employees and the basis of the country's progress in various areas and along with it having professional and experienced human resources are in this organization. And until now a comprehensive investigation that shows the problems in the municipality has not been conducted. The results of this study can help a lot of problems in the organization.Due to the importance of this issue we are going to analyze the strategic indicators of human resource management in this investigation.

 

4. Review of the literature

 

Basically, the knowledge of strategy of human resources is a very modern knowledge which was noted along with strategic management of human resources in the late 70th century. After the first years of 1980 were spent theorizing on the basis of the human resources strategy, the first models of human resource strategies were presented in the middle of the decade. These models, with a strong emphasis on the compliance of human resource strategies of organizational strategy, with rational and logical approach, strategic issues common to all human resource management organizations were provided. But the first models were able to propose various strategic types for various situations of organizations were dimensional models of "Osterman" and "Schuler and Jackson" in 1987. Osterman model, introduced the four strategic human resources based on the labor market (recruitment from within or outside of the organization). While Schuler and Jackson's model, was based on required control (Process control and yield) and on the basis distinguished the two types of strategy. After that, the other one-dimensional models based on these two factors (the labor market and control) were presented by theoretical and experimental researchers by the end of the decade of 1990. Since these models were based on special factors in human resource management had no need to match the corresponding components of the Organizational strategy. Because, organizational strategy were made based on internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) related to whole organization. However, according to the governesses of realistic view (not just based on logic and calculations) in order to establish these models, the necessary coordination with the strategy of the organization was provided; while they prevented the spread of possible errors of organizational strategy, to the human resources strategy in the editing process. In 2000, "Peter Baumberger" and "Len Meshoulam" using the attractive logic of combination research were successful to introduce the "integrated model", by the combination of two above- mentioned factors (labor market check), provide four types of human resource strategy with high internal consistency. Strategic planning of human resources, especially in the last decade, has been very useful in developed countries. In a way that according to conducted researches, more than half of the organizations in these countries, using results from the human resources strategy, have achieved new capabilities in strategic management of human resources. Just as the development and application of other concepts and methodologies of management in our country, due to its exotic origin, is generally carried in the country with a considerable delay; Implementation of human resources strategies due to its newness, lack of development of strategic dialogue in this regard, shortage of Persian resources and the failure of organization managers to take the foreign successful and new models in consideration, according to the available information, so far, it is not common as it should be in the organizations in the country. According to the study conducted by a researcher at search sites and referring to the central libraries of the Ministry of Petroleum, National Gas Company, National Company of Oil Refining and Distribution, Qazvin Azad University and AllamehTabatabai University, some of the research done in this area the following description is pointed.

 

 

 

Domestic studies:

 

1) Development of an integrated model of human resource strategy (case study MAPNA): This research is the thesis of MrHadiMoreyi which in 2002 was defended with guidance of Dr. Mohammad Aarabi in Management and Accounting Faculty of AllamehTabatabai University.

 

Mapna, has a matrix structure based on the project. For formulating the strategy for human resources in the company, the jobs were categorized as follows:

 

A.  The main jobs: jobs that are directly related to the mission of the organization.

 

B.   Technical jobs, these jobs are mainly staff jobs as of planning, finance, human resources and so on.

 

C.   Service jobs that are the community jobs. Accordingly, we should have human resource strategy in three categories: Human resource strategy for the main jobs, human resource strategy for technical jobs, and human resource strategy for service jobs.

 

In the next step, according to the distributed questionnaire, it was determined that SRP is subject to which factors, and the ratio of the importance of each of Strategic reference Points were determined by experts. At the end, the two dimensions of control (product or process) and focus (outside or inside) were identified as the dimensions of the SRP.Based on the above numbers SRP matrix was expressed in the chart below.

 

Human resource strategyMapna

 

 

 

 

Essential elements in the reward strategy (Case Study of the Turbine Company of Iran) this research is the MA thesis of MostafaBastan which was defended with guidance of Dr. Mohammad Aarabi in Management and Accounting Faculty of AllamehTabatabai University. This study is done based on an integrated model on strategic reference points (SRPs). Four dimensions proposed in the model to determine the essential elements of reward strategy are as follows:

 

 

 

A. The main selections:

 

Some of the decisions are the main policies of the organization and is the basis on which the payment system should be monitored, including the following items:

 

-  The organization's payment structure (to determine reward strategy) or try to emphasize consistency in terms of wages, comply with market rates.

 

-  The organization seeks to encourage risk or risk aversion among employees.

 

-  The organization has more emphasis on the material reward or intellectual reward.

 

-  Organization payment should be centralized or decentralized - Payment of the organization should be openly or secretly.

 

 

 

B. Domestic equality options

 

Internal equality is done the best when the ratio of payments to the work and activities of all jobs within the organization is the same. Among the most important issues in order to respect the principle of internal equality following items can be noted:

 

-           Payments         should be        done    on        the       basis    of         job       or         skill. The number of payment levels is wide and high or low and limited. Or in other words, how much is the distance between minimum and maximum wage of organization. C. External equality options.

 

When planning the reward system the important decision must be made that the organization payment should be the same or more or less than the reward of the staff of the external labor market companies.

 

D. Employee equality options

 

The principle of equality of staff is done in the best way possible when employees whose jobs are similar, get the same reward. Among the most important decisions for principle of equality the following could be noted:

 

  To reward one of the indicators (membership, seniority, skills or performance) be used.

 

  Payments should be based on individual or group performance.

 

•How should be the timing of the performance evaluation and payment(long term or the short term).

 

  In the time of incentive payments, what are the conditions to achieve it?

 

These factors each impact on one of the SRP or strategic reference points to find to the situation of each of these factors experts were approached, after careful investigation and comments made, each of the variables SRP1 (according to efficiency) and SRP2 (depending on market), were obtained. According to integrated model (SRP's) reward strategy of this company is situated on the committed strategy. The strategic position of the company in good and existing conditions is shown in diagrams as follows:

 

Localization of reward strategy (optimal position)

 

 

 

 

3.  Pathology commitment in terms of human resource management policies (from the perspective of employees). This research is the MA thesis of Ali BagheriKaljahi which was defended with guidance of Dr. Mohammad Aarabi in Management and Accounting Faculty of AllamehTabatabai University. According to various studies, many factors can be involved in the amount of commitment. One of the major factors that affect organizational commitment is human resource management policies, that corporate managers have the ability to change these parameters directly. Peter

 

Baumberger and Llanmeshoulam have divided human resource management policies into three subsystems: Subsystem of providing human resources, subsystem ofperformance evaluation and reward, subsystem of relations with staff. This study measures organizational commitment of headquarters of the National Oil Products Distribution Company with Allen and Meyer Scale. With both two-dimensional Chi test and as well as the correlation coefficient of Gamma D. Summers, it is proved that there is a direct correlation between human resources management policies applied in the form of human resource management sub-systems from the perspective of employees and organizational commitment. The results of these tests are summarized in the chart below:

 

 

 

The relationship betweenhuman resource managementpolicies

 

 

 

 

Other domestic research and studies: 

 

-  Abtahi, SeyedHossein, Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad, developing human resource strategies (case study: a spiritual organizations in the country), Journal of Human Resources Management University of Imam Hassan, the summer of 2002, the first year, No. 3, pp. 1 -23

 

-  Rahnavard, Farajollah., Nekzad, Said, creating alignment between organizational elements in the light of the strategic reference points and its relationship with organizational performance, Public Administration, year 2009, Volume 1, No. 2, page 1 9 to 34

 

-  AkhavanPeyman,Pezeshkan, Amir, providing a framework of human resource strategy with an emphasis on the knowledge, Professor of Humanities - Research in Management in Iran, Spring 2011, Vol. 1, 5, 1

 

-  Mirsepasi, Nasser, some of the challenges in the field of human resource management in the oil industry, quarterly and human resources management in the oil industry, the third year, No. 7, Summer 2009, pp. 1, 8-7

 

-Eskafy, Amir Reza, 2005, based on the strategic reference points (on clay effect on the performance of the organizational elements of the strategic coordination), Master Thesis, Tehran, AllamehTabatabai University School of Accounting and Management

 

-  Competitive factors in organizational risk attitude: the strategic reference points.

 

This study was conducted by Aviv Schwamm and AVI Feigenbaum the Business School of the University of Haifa in 2002. In this study, special attention has been paid to the increased and important role of strategy as competitive advantage and multi-level topics (such as social, demographic structure and organization) have been used; Researchers consider these factors very effective on organizational behavior and innovation.

 

 

 

The strategic reference points

 

 

 

 

 

In this research, researchers according to their intended theory explain how risky strategies in organizations are designed and enter the topic that strategic reference points takes the organization ideas to the bipolar risk appetite. And the risk appetite is detected in the form of 2 factors of negative risk appetite (abusive) and positive risk appetite.They describe an organizational mechanism that leads attitudes towards realistic risk appetite in positive behavioral strategies, and three-dimensional space is provided that illustrates the scope of strategic reference points. This research deals with the interpretation of Strategic Reference Points and concludes that the nature of the industry and organizational strategy and the impact of performance is a kind of used strategic reference point that shows the impact of risk appetite behavior to the innovation strategy.

 

5- Research hypotheses:

 

-  Individual factors affect the strategic management of human resources in the municipality of Qazvin.

 

-  Organizational factors affect the strategic management of human resources in Qazvin municipality.

 

-  Environmental factors affect strategic human resources management in Qazvin municipality.

 

-  Occupational factors impact on strategic human resources management in Qazvin municipality.

 

6.  The scope of the study: 

 

6-1  - the territory of the subject: This study focuses on factors effective on human resource management strategies.

 

6-2  The location territory: The study was conducted in the municipality of Qazvin

 

6-3  population: The population of the study is all municipal employees, organizations affiliated with the Municipality and the council of Qazvin in different categories. For sample selection, simple random sampling method is used. And to calculate the amount due to the limited sample population Cochran formula is used.

 

n2 NZ2 22 var(x)

 

N1Z2var(x)

 

 

 

7. Definition of strategic management 

 

Strategic management can be defined as: Art and science formulation, implementation and evaluation of multi-functional decisions that will enable the organization to achieve its long term goals. As can be deduced from the definition of strategic management achieving organizational success is emphasized on several factors; Coordination of management, marketing, finance (accounting), production (operations), research and development and computer information systems.  In many universities and colleges, the term "strategic management" is as a synonym for "commercial policy" as it includes all course materials and units that students pass in course of business management and it is considered as the final important lesson of this course. (Fred. R. David. 1999).

 

7-1- Stages of strategic management

 

Strategic management process consists of three stages: the formulation of strategies, implementation of strategies and evaluation of strategies. The purpose of the strategy formulation is that the company's mission is to identify the factors in the external environment that threaten the organization or create opportunities for it, identifying the internal strengths and weaknesses, determine the long-term objectives taking the various strategies into account and selection of specific strategies to continue the activity. The issue that will be raised in the context of the strategy formulation includes: determining the activity that the company is willing to deal with, activities that it wants to get out of, the method of allocation of resources, decisions about expanding and diversifying activities, deciding whether to enter international markets, determine whether the company is willing to integrate with other companies or form a partnership, and methods to remain safe from the fast movements of the competitors who are trying to swallow the company. Since no organization can have unlimited resources, strategist should make decisions that which of the different strategies can bring the most benefit to the organization. Decisions made in the context of strategy formulation commit the companies to for a relatively long period of time to produce certain products, and do activities in certain markets, and finally use well known resources and technologies. Strategies determine long-term competitive advantages of organization. For better or worse, strategic decisions leave multilateral and lasting impact on the organization. Senior managers   have the best view to understand the different aspects of the decision process; they have the power or authority to spend resources for the implementation of various decisions. 

 

The implementation of strategies requires the company to consider the annual targets, determine policies and motivate the employees. And allocate resources so that formulated strategies are implemented. Strategy implementation is dependent on cultural development that will strengthens the strategies, manages an effective organizational structure, lead marketing efforts, make budgeting, create and use information systems (create a reasonable relation between performance and compensation of employees) Often, the process of Strategy implementation is called strategic management. The purpose of the implementation of strategies is that the employees and managers are mobilized and formulated strategies are carried out. Often, it is thought that the most difficult step of strategic management is the implementation phase and requires that its members are committed to the organization, and they do self-sacrifice and apply a kind of self-control.The success of the implementation of strategies would depend on the managers to motivate their employees, and this is a kind of art (and not a science). If strategies are formulated but never implemented, this action would not be anything but futile.

 

For the successful implementation of the strategic method, managers must high skills in interpersonal communication. Activities done in the field of strategy implementation will affect all employees and managers of an organization. Each of the sectors and departments should try to answer these questions:"What should we do to play an effective role in in the execution of our corporate strategy?" and "How can this be done in the best way?" The main aspects of the implementation of strategies is that managers and workers are encouraged and in the organization work with fascination and honor and finally devotion to work and do not spare any effort in the achievement of the set goals.

 

The final step in the strategic management is assessment of strategies. Managers may need to know when specific strategies are not effective. Basically, assessment of Strategy means that information should be collected on this subject. All strategies are subject to future changes as internal and external factors are constantly changing. To evaluate strategies three main activities are done which are as follows: (1) Evaluation of internal and external factors that are the basis for current strategies, (2) Calculate the functions and (3) Corrective actions. That strategy should be evaluated because the success of today cannot guarantee success tomorrow! Success always causes new and diverse problems. An organization that is adequate to its current status or with arrogance will be doomed.

 

In large organization activities that are done in the field of development, implementation and evaluation of strategies are carried out at three levels (the organizational hierarchy). They include the entire company, department or business strategy unit and functional level.Strategic management as a competitive team by improving communication and interaction between managers and employees different organizational levels tries to play its role excellent manner. Many small companies and a few large organizations do not have independent units (departments) or Strategic Business Units. They work only in two levels of the organization: The level of the whole organization and at functional level. However, managers and employees at these two levels must play an active role in the strategic management activities.

 

Peter Drucker says that the main role of strategic management is to look at the company from the point of view of the company's mission:

 

That is, consider the question, "What is our main job?" causes the targets to be set, strategies to be formulated and decisions to be taken today that the results will be achieved tomorrow. No doubt that this must be done by a part of the organization, which can look at the entire organization with a extended view, can establish a balance between the goals and needs of today and tomorrow and can allocate the human and financial resources that lead to main and desired results (Fred. R. David. 1999).

 

- The combination of intuitive judgment and analysis of strategic management can be described as below:rational, objective and systematic method for decision making in the organization. In this management it is tried that quantitative and qualitative data are adjusted in a way that in unsafe conditions effective decisions could be made. However, strategic management is not a science that acts based on scientific law (2x2=4). Based on past experience, "to make good strategic decisions" it's necessary to use "intuitive judgments" Especially for decision making in uncertain conditions, or where they have no samples from the past "Intuitive judgments" are used. Also, when the variables are highly interdependent and when the pressure is high so that the decision is correct, or when one of the many known solutions should be selected, this method of decision making will be useful. Such conditions are indicative of the nature and essence of strategic management.

 

Some managers and owners of companies admitted that have extraordinary abilities in using power based on intuitive judgment [inspiration] in making big decisions. For example, Alfred Sloan about Will Durant (founder of General Motors Corporation) says: "As a man, as far as I know, he only acted according to the inspiration. He never needed technical methods to obtain the facts. In many cases he made great judgments and made important and valuable decisions." Albert Einstein once said: "I believe in inspiration and intuitive judgments. Sometimes I am certainly sure that my work is right, but I cannot reason. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination includes the entire world." We see that the great scientist Honors intuitive judgment. Although the growth and survival of many of today's successful organizations is because of elite, innovative and inspiring managers, but many organizations do not have this luxury. Many organizations can take advantage of the strategic management, an approach of management that for decision-making use a blend of intuitive judgment and the scientific analysis. The problem is not to choose between Analytical methods or the use of the natural and intuitive judgment and make decisions based on that. Managers at all levels of the organization when making decisions in the strategic management analysis should use intuitive judgments. Analytical thinking and intuitive thinking complete each other. One might act this way and say "I've made up my minds, and I do not care what facts and figures say" This style of decision making cannot be called evidence-based management. It is better to call it "ignorance-based management". Drucker says, "I only accept decisions based on intuitive judgments when the decision maker is subject to a form of discipline. Those artists that based on Speculation and incorrect data evaluate its accuracy, are like doctors that will cause their patient to die, and those who act like this in their management will cause death and destruction for the organization" As Henderson said. In the present, the alarming rate of change has created a lot of experiences, and common methods of management cannot be proper for the organization. When the changes were minor, we could use the experience and experience alone was considered a good guide. But when the decisions are strategic and the results are major and irreversible, decisions based on intuitive judgment and experience (based on management philosophy) cannot be used. From one perspective, strategic management process is an attempt to prepare the second edition of what is going on in the brain of a clever and elite human, the person with direct understanding of the issues, the same person who is aware of the shade of the company and interweaves this innate knowledge and blessing of God with scientific analysis. Compatibility with changes in the strategic management process is based on the belief that companies have to continuously monitor trends on domestic and foreign events that they can to adapt to the changes at the appropriate time and in terms of the need. The rate and depth of changes that affect organizations is very high. For example, notice features such as Windows 98, and Internet commerce, medical laser, laser weapons, older population and frenzy of mergers of companies.Organizations to be able to survive should identify these changes with clever methods and adapt to them. The purpose of the strategic management process is to allow organizations in long-term successfully adapt to changing conditions. In today's business environment more than any other period in the past the only thing that remains stable is the phenomenon of "change".

 

Successful organizations can in an effective manner adapt with the phenomenon of change. Permanently, bureaucratic systems, strategies, products and cultures have adapted to the changing conditions to survive the devastating impact of unknown forces and tolerate against the destructive competition forces. Information technology and globalization are the external changes that change the present organization of society. In a political map, boundaries between companies are clear but in a competitive map we can see actual flow of financial permanent industrial activities and these borders have largely disappeared. The alarming rate information has caused the loss of national borders so that around the world people can watch the lifestyle of others. Traveling abroad has greatly increased.Every year, over 10 million Japanese travel. Migration has increased, the Germans, migrated to the UK and Mexicans migrate to the United States. As the "world view" shows that American companies in various industries are against very difficult rivals. Phenomena such as global citizens, global competition, global customers, global suppliers and global distributors have led us to live in a world that has no borders! The need to adapt to changes made to companies in terms of strategic management, ask the following questions: What will we be doing in future? Are we on the discipline or field of work? Should we change the shape of the organization and its activities? What other competitors will enter this industry? What strategies can we implement? How are our customers changing? Will new technologies be provided that can remove us from the activities? (Fred. R. David. 1999). 

 

7-2-key termsin strategic management

 

Before continuing discussing strategic management, we want to define eight term, technical word or expression. They include strategist, mission statement, external opportunities and threats, internal strengths and weaknesses, the long-term goals, strategies, annual goals and policies.

 

-                      Strategists: Strategists are the individuals responsible for the success or failure of the organization. Strategists have different job titles, such as chief executive, president, owner, and chairman, CEO, President of the University, dean or entrepreneur. Three researchers named Jonas, Fray and Sri Vastva believe that the in every change there is creating commitment and sense of ownership and a balance between stability and innovation.

 

Strategists are expected to change in various ways. For example, in first decade of 2000, strategists will have further leadership insight, establish a better relationship between performance and compensation, maintain better relations with their employees, and further emphasize on corporate ethics. The difference between the strategistsis the same size as the difference between organizations. And the differences in the formulation of strategies, implementation and evaluation should be observed. Some strategists due to personal philosophy do not pay attention to some strategy. Strategists are different in terms of attitudes, values, ethics, risk, attention to social responsibility, attention to profitability, attention to long-term or shortterm goals and management styles. Milton Hershey, founder of Hershey Food Company, establishes the company with the goal that abandoned children is addressed. In the present time, with benefits from the company more than 1,000 male and female orphans are being educated in special school. Some strategists agree with the views of Ralph Nader and he believes that social organizations are very large commitments. Some agree with views of economist Milton Friedman, he believes that the commitment of the organization to the society is just as the law has determined.Most strategists agree with the view that the first social responsibility of companies is to obtain profits to meet the future costs, because if it does not obtain this profit it cannot do any other social responsibility. Strategists should look from the perspective of the costs and potential benefits that social issues have for the company. And pay attention to those social issues that interest the organization to provide the best profit possible. - The mission statement: Mission statement is a document that distinguishes an organization from other similar organizations. Mission represents the spectrum of activity in terms of the product and the market. In the mission statement a question facing all strategist, is proposed.It means "What we are doing?" mission reflecting the values and priorities of an organization. Mission or apostleship causes strategists to think about nature and scope of activities of the company and evaluate the potential attractions of markets and its activities. Apostleship or mission is a chart that determines the future course of the organization. The results of a research show that about 60% of all organizations consider an official mission. In addition, result of this research indicates that mission organizations that have excellent performance (compared to organizations that have performed poorly) are excellent. Note that the mission of Adolf Coors Company provided below is not reflecting the type of its activity:We are innovative and successful company that in the field of trade we are self-sufficient. In terms of technology, quality of products and services that have been able to provide customer satisfaction, we are leading; we are a growing and profitable company.  And using the technology that we have provided in the shade of organizational innovation, and with the corporation of company, we have been able to work on new fields.Our company's reputation is due to the good and honest relationship that we created with people, we are committed to the ethical principles and care about people. The character of our employees grows alongside the company. Our work life is attractive, vibrant and so challenging. And our teams while have mutual respect for each other work in a space replete with love and intimacy. We feel socially responsible and we do not spare any effort to improve society. - External opportunities and threats: Meaning of the external opportunities and threats is economic, social, cultural, ecological, environment, political, legal, governmental, technological and competitive events and trends, that in future can benefit or harm the company a large extent. Opportunities and threats are largely beyond the control of an organization, so they use the external word.The revolution in computers, biotechnology (biotech) displacement of the population, changes in attitudes and values, the discovery of space, recycling waste and increasing competition by foreign companies are examples of opportunities and threats that exist for companies. These changes lead to the creation of specific consumers, and as a result, different types of product, service and strategies are needed.

 

As described in an article titled "Information Technology", increasing telephone lines in developing countries is an opportunity for many companies. Some of the opportunities and threats are: approval of a law, new product by a competitor, a national disaster or currency devaluation. The power of a rival company to is considered a threat. Unrest in Eastern Europe, rising interest rates or the fight against drugs are examples of opportunities or threats. The basic principles of strategic management is that to take advantage of opportunities abroad and avoid or reduce the effects of external threats organizations should seek formulation of strategies. For this reason, identification, monitoring and evaluation of external opportunities and threats can ensure the success of the organization. Sometimes the process of doing research and gathering information and assimilating foreign or external factors is called industry analysis.

 

-                      Internal strengths and weaknesses points: internal strengths and weaknesses are among manageable activities of organization that the company carries it out either in an excellent manner or very weakly. In the shade of management, marketing, finance (accounting), production (operations), research and development and computer information systems activities they identify the strengths and weaknesses of company and assess them. Organizations try to implement strategies that strengthen the internal strengths and the weaknesses are fixed (or improved).

 

The company's strengths and weaknesses is determined in comparison with competing companies. One of the most important information is that the organization is aware of their relative strengths and weaknesses. Also the company's strengths and weaknesses can be determined based on the existence (of being) and not on the performance of the organization.For example, natural resources and long-standing reputation regarding quality of the product can be taken into account as strengths. The company's strengths and weaknesses can be determined in terms of achieving the desired goals. For example, for a company that tries to always have the necessary amount of inventory, high inventory turnover cannot be considered as a strong point. We can calculate organization internal factors in a lot of ways, for example calculating the ratio, evaluation performance, and comparing these with the mean of previous industry or periods. It is also possible that to examine the internal factors, like employee morale, production efficiency, the effectiveness of advertising and customer loyalty, use a variety of survey research. CEO of Portland General, Robert H.short expresses strengths and weaknesses of his company (in terms of strategy) as below:First of all, this company produces energy for people and residents of Oregon. In fact, energy is the power or strength for us and in this field of activity we are going to walk the path of growth. However, in order to promote our strengths points we must eliminate our weaknesses or reduce them. I am proud that the company of Portland General by relying on its strengths intends to spend the future century successfully.

 

Long-term goals: Long-term goals can be described as certain results that the company tries achieving in providing its mission. The meaning of the long-term period is a period of more than one year. That is why these goals are necessary for the success of the organization that is determinative of the path of company. They help companies to do the evaluation, synergies, determine priorities, coordinate matters, and for planning, organizing, motivating the employees and controlling the activities of the companies in an effective manner. Long-term goals can be challenging, measurable, stable, sensible and clear. In multinational organizations goals can determined based on the entire company, each of the independent units or functional units.Minnesota Power Company's long-term goal is to raise return on equity to 13% (in electricity consumption). The company tries to raise this ratio in water resources to 14% and in other activities that the company does as support, raise it to 15%. The company strives in terms of market value of equity of common stock to book value of the shares (in the US) to be in first 25% (Among the power generation factories). And annually tries to keep the rate of profit growth of 5%.

 

-                      Strategies: Strategies are tools that company can achieve its long term goals with them. Company strategies can be in terms of development of activities in level of products, penetration of the market, reducing costs, selling items of assets, delegation of authority, and private partnership.

 

Annual goals: annual goals are short term goals that to achieve long term goals,company has to achieve them. Annual goals, like the long-term goal must be measurable, quantitative, challenging, realistic, and consistent with the other goals and priorities.In a large company, this goal should be determined based on the entire company, sectors (independent unit) and functional units. Annual targets should be based on the management, marketing, finance (accounting), production (operations), research and development and information system. According to each long-term goal a set of annual targets should exist.In the implementation of strategies, annual targets are important, while in formulating strategies, long-term goals are very important. Annual goals are considered as a basis for resource allocation. Campbell Soup Company has an annual goal based on  a 20% profit growth, return on equity of 20% and return on  invested cash of 20%. The company determines its annual goals based on the growth rate of net profit, return on equity and invested funds. Tribune Company (which is the fifth largest newspaper in the United States and is the owner of the Baseball Chicago kabz) is another example that has clear annual goals. President and CEO of the company stress that for the annual goals, the return on equity must be 17% and ratio of debt to total capital must be 30%. - Policies: Politics are the means by which we can achieve the annual goals. The meaning of policies is, the guidelines, rules and procedures that the company compliance with to achieve the declared objectives. When making decisions the policy is used as guidelines and policy also determines the routine and repetitive conditions of the company. Often, policies are expressed in terms of activities that are carried out concerning management, marketing, finance (accounting), production (operations), research and development and computer information systems. We can determine policies for the entire company, and apply it throughout the organization, or determine it for an independent unit and apply it for a section and independently. Or determine the policy for one unit of the organization and apply it for that particular unit.Like annual targets, policies are of great importance in implementation of strategies, because they specify the expectation of the organization from the employees. By implementation of policies the organization tries to create coordination and consistency between units within the organization. Numerous studies have been conducted and their results show that a healthier workforce can more efficiently and effectively implement the strategies. National health center (US) estimated that more than 80% of all US companies use the "no smoking" policy.Usually the policy of "no smoking" is rooted in annual goals and tries to reduce medical costs for the company (in terms of absenteeism and sick leave) and make the working environment healthier. Pullman company in California provides $10 more for any worker who smokes (compared to employees who do not smoke cigarettes) for insurance (Fred R. David. 1999).

 

7-3-model of strategic management

 

With using a pattern, you can study strategic management process in the best possible way and apply it.  The framework presented in Figure 1 -2 is a comprehensive model of strategic management process, which is very common and acceptable. This model never guarantees success of the company, but to formulate strategies, implementation and evaluation the strategies it provides a clear and practical method.In this model, the relationship between the main components of the strategic management process is illustrated and in the following chapters, depending on demands and according to the main topic of each chapter we explain these relationships. In logical terms, starting point for discussion of strategic management is to start with determining the mission, long-term goals andcurrent strategies of organization. Because the current condition or situation of a company may express the specific and clear strategies of the company, and even show a specific path (path or desired options of strategist).Each organization has a mission, long-term goals and strategies, even if these elements or components are not clearly designed, written or reported. To find the answer to the question of where is the company going we must know where the company was.

 

Strategic management process is dynamic and ongoing. Change in each of the elements of pattern will cause changes in some other or all of the components of the model. For example, a change or shift in the economic system can rise great opportunities and requires   revision in strategies and long term goals.If an organization fails to achieve its annual targets should reconsider its policy. If a rival company's strategy changes, company should reconsider its mission. Therefore, the activities in formulation, implementation and evaluation of strategies have permanent aspect and are not performed only at the end of the year or once every six months.In fact, the strategic management process does not end. Strategic management process steps cannot be separated precisely and clearly like it is presented in the strategic management model.  Strategies do not formulate this process in a closed space. Usually a trip between different levels of organization (exchange) exists.Many agencies officially gather to once every six months to do revision about the mission, threats and opportunities, strengths and weaknesses, strategies, long-term objectives and policies and practices; usually in the meetings, some retreat from their former opinions. Reason of these meetings (in addition to discussing performed works) is to encourage people to creativity and active participation in the affairs. Strong communication and feedback of the results of activities is among things to be done in the strategic           process.

 

As shown in figure 2-1 the official level of of strategic management in organizations is influenced by various factors. The size of largest of the company is considered a key factor; in line with performing professional work strategic management of small organizations do not act very official. Other variables that affect level of being official of strategic management include: management method, environmental complexity, the complexity of the manufacturing process, the nature of the issues and the goal of the planning system. (Rangriz.Azimi. 2006).

 

 

7-4- strategic role of human resources

 

Today, the human resources section has a strategic role. Changes in the working environment can influence the performance results of shareholders and company strategies. Part of human resources have an important role in observation and integration of working conditions, enticing employees to work, expanding the capabilities of employees and creating partnership that partners' views are taken into account and converting them to profits. Other human resources strategies are not a separate process from the business strategies and its related processes. Organizations such as Temas Instruments, Bank Vyasa and C-Dot have attempted to combine and formulate human resource strategies with human needs. Figure 2-2 illustrates how human resources and business processes are linked. Business strategies require specific business skills in company. "Michael Potter and C. k. Parahalar" regard this as a core capability of a company. For full access to capabilities they are as the business capabilities of an organization. The needs of these people specify the organization strategies and these strategies are expressed through the method of business management.  Everyday commercial transactions, periodical interaction and assessment frequently lead the organization to the revision of strategies.

 

 

When the strategic role of human resources is increased the old and stereotyped staffing section which original was a executive section, is eliminated. Stating when or how the human resources sector was created is a difficult task. Also finding when it was determined that participating employees as partners is vital, is also difficult. These are questions that can be difficult to find certain answers for.Wherever the root of this issue is, it is clear that the human resources department has undergone a tremendous change over time. What before was only a part of the work, now has changed and has earned numerous implications. There is no definitive definition of human resources. Each organization has a unique business model and a model existing in an organization, will not be helpful in another organization. This model should be based on the size, structure, industry outlook and nature of business (Rangriz. Azimi. 2006).

 

7-5- definition of human resource management

 

Before the definition of human resource management, it is necessary to have a definition of management in general: Management is in general, is working with and by individuals and groups to achieve organizational goals. This definition emphasizes that people are the most important resource available to managers. Through this source, other resources such as knowledge, financial resources, raw materials, factory, equipment, etc.,are handled. But in particular, human resources management is using effective and efficient human resources to achieve organizational goals. In other words, human resource management can be a defined as a strategic process to achieve efficient and effective human resources by attracting, developing, upgrading and encourage them to make the necessary commitment to organizational goals (Rangriz. Azimi. 2006).

 

2-2-7- Basic approach to human resources management

 

Three basic approaches about human resource management will be discussed. These approaches are:

 

7-5-1- strategic approach

 

In this view, managers first assess the environmental opportunities and threats, predict important situations that may occur and do a detailed investigation of this situation and select the position that it is more likely to occur, and based on that they set their environmental assumptions. At the next stage, with regard to the facilities and capabilities of the organization and other important issues affecting decision-making on the one hand, and the opportunities and threats on the other hand, management evaluates the different programs to perform the activities of the organization and chooses the best strategy.The important point is that if the most important mode (the predicted) does not occur, all the schedules are disrupted and all other activities are affected. Also in this approach, the management certainly links their certain programs with the long-term strategies of the organization and ensures to provide the guidance staff and technical supportrequired for the strategy.

 

7.5.2-System approaches

 

Historically, discussion of systems has a long history, and perhaps the basis for its growth and development can be found in holism or macro-thinking resulted from the vision and attitudes of macro-oriented of the universe. This implies that this world and everything in the universe has unity and interactive communication, all the creatures of the universe are considered as a whole. In a way that, every part of it and any creature of it, is part of the collection which all its components are regularly related to each other, get influenced by each other and affect each other.In this view, human resource management should view its programs systematically, and maintain the relationship between the organization plans with other activities; otherwise, the survival of the organization will face difficulties.

 

7.5.3 Contingency approach

 

This attitude is a function of strategic approaches and systems and is based on this concept that all policies and activities of the staff depends to the situation in which the organization operates. For organizational survival human resource management should consider the popular hypothesis "Galbraith", although these assumptions are: 

 

1)  There is not one best way to organize.

 

2)  Methods of organization do not have not equal efficiency (Haji Karimi, Rangriz, 2000).

 

2-2-8- Features and specifications of Human Resource Management

 

Human resource management features and specifications can be listed as follows:

 

1.      Emphasis on the importance of gaining employee commitment to the organization, its mission and values;

 

2.      The emphasis on strategic coordination between Human Resources and the other departments;

 

3.      Guidance of the activities of human resource management by top managers;

 

4.      The implementation of human resource management activities by operational managers;

 

5.      Focus on the competitive advantages by human resource managers;

 

6.      Supporting employment generation policies;

 

7.      Focus on the Strong values and culture;

 

8.      Emphasis on greater success and cope with new challenges

 

9.      Emphasis on the flexible role of managers.

 

10.  The emphasis on teamwork, team building, and flexibility;

 

11.  The emphasis on quality products and services to customers and clients and their satisfaction.

 

(Marker and Memrior, 2002).

 

7-6 Developments in human resource management

 

Figure 3-2 provides an overall view of how human resource management develops due to changes in the business environment over time. Since 1850 to 1960, to make changes in business and in the development of human resources, these changes lasted. During the period of forced labor in 1850, the first products were produced and this caused governing relations between employee and employer. With the advent of industrialization process, the complexity of the business and production was increased gradually and technical changes were inherent in the work.

 

This created a growing need to industrial output. As a result, the relationship between employee and employer changed. Due to the spread of socialism and the revolution of liberation, labor unions were formed. Labor unions which were supportedpolitical terms entered the industry and started to stop the regulation of work. At this point a new period was created in which industrial relations were based on collective bargaining, and work rules were accepted by governments around the world. A new law was created on the basis of industrial relations that identified the relationship between organizations and labor unions, workers and managers. Thus, the role of the human resource was changing with time and growth in organizations.

 

According to various surveys in the field of behaviorism, individual management was created as a field alongside other management fields. And an unorganized industrial growth was created in organizations. Large companies together under one roof and began to control their products and services. At this time, the growth of people was in focus.Organizations started to hire professionals in different fields. The result was the combination of a changing workforce. Integration and reduction in the size of the organization, gradually, made employees, workers, staff and employees understand the benefits of welfare. Today, employees have found that there is no guarantee for their jobs and the future of their business.In an era when many companies are reducing their long-term relationships and threats to staff, the role of human resource has increased dramatically. Employers have found that in order to maintain their position in the labor market should consider competitive creative program of human resource as part of a long-term strategy for the organization. For this reason, the development of human resource has replaced personnel management (Haji Karimi, Rangriz .2000).

 

 

 

 

7-7- human resource as intellectual property

 

Now half of the life cycle of information age has passed. Price of processing the information that has to be declining has driven this field to the fact that information is a commodity. Information has become a product that can be easily bought or sold. As a result, we cannot destroy it as a competitive advantage.Therefore new source of competitive advantage in the name of intellectual property was created which is increasingly welcomed. Intellectual property can be considered as the total knowledge, skills, and abilities of an organization and channels to create useful products in it. Intellectual property was presented as a highlight since year 1990 in the news about the economy. And although since then a number of economic and community members have explained about the issues and problems surrounding it, most managers have recently become aware of the issues and its surrounding management.Although the industrial era is becoming a history but there is still a very small and sufficient understanding of how to maximize intellectual assets. The term "intellectual property" links us with other types of assets, and sets the knowledge capital and wisdom in the field of financial assets and fixed assets. Thomas Stewart in The intellectual capital: the new wealth of organizations said that intellectual capital is rational knowledge, information, intellectual property and experience that can be used to produce wealth. Although intellectual capital is a relatively new idea, but a lot of companies around the world it has great importance. The activity of "Price Waterhouse" is an organized activity in the field of intellectual property creation. The "Motorola" company also in the form of a strategic plan started an attempt to create intellectual property through education and learning and knowledge management. Assessment of intellectual property is one of the growing fields. Traditional accounting measures do not respond to the where the change must happen. They can only say that what happened in the past. If the movement is to create a link between intellectual property and structure successes, the company will be able to make complex calculations of costs and benefits such as knowledge management, effective learning and teaching and so on.Insofi company which is a computer company, from the very beginning on a regular basis followed what it considered as intellectual capital as part of its annual report and as the key to continued success, this company calculates the main index ratios and intellectual property which is firm's investment strategy.As the economic community and the world of the companies are involved in measuring non-tangible assets, human resource community is thinking about its measurability. Organizations such as Rylans, SALL and BPL have taken steps in this direction.

 

7-8- Human resources as value added

 

For employers the value of human resource is the result of work. Further productivity, higher quality of service to the customer positive employee relationships and cheaper prices are among the factors that are typically leads to higher profits.Such factors most directly promoted by creative and effective activities of human resource. Historically in human resource the business was considered as an expenses and learning was considered as an amortized asset. Today, when we talk about the value added of any process or operation, the human resource is viewed as an investment that in the future can lead to progressive income, at the past it was not viewed like that.What makes the success of an organization strong is the ability of the value added to its input. If it does not have a value added meaning the value of output is greater than the input value which is  not in frequent use, there is no logical explanation for its existence. Many studies have shown that the perception of managers is that the value added of human resources will increase in the future.

 

 

 

 

7-9- Strategic levels within the organization

 

Application of the strategy is not confined to the top of the organization and general organizational issues. As seen in Figure No. 6-2, according to each organizational level, lowerlevel strategy, focuses on more details (Rahmanseresht, 2001):

 

 

 

In this way, for organizational level of human resource management a systematic strategy called "human resource strategy" must be prepared.

 

Human resource Strategy

 

Human resource strategies are a recipe for Human resource system in which the mission, Statement priority task of Human resource are identified (Ulrich, 1997; quoted by Bamberger and Meshoulam, 2002). With this definition, firstly all focus should be on human resources systems and not the function of human resources, secondly, a distinction must be made between human resource strategy that is formulated and claims to draw the future and the human resources strategy that is practiced without a guideline based on past and current procedures. The relationship between human resources strategy and organization strategy has a decisive impact on the performance of the organization, however there are differences of opinion about unilaterally and interactive nature of this relationship that we will discuss.

 

7-10- strategic management of human resources

 

Strategic resource management can be defined as follows: The process of formulation and implementation of human resources strategies in order to link policies and human resources methods with the strategic goals and objectives of the organization (terrace and Gratton, 1994, as quoted by Bamberger and Meshulem, 2002).

 

The process of linking the methods of human resource with organizational strategies (Ulrich, 1997, as quoted by Meshulam, 2002).

 

2-2-6 - strategic relations of Human resource system

 

In background of human resources strategy, researches has been done in the form of 5 relationships bellow and can be seen in figure No. 5 (Arabi, 2002)

 

Equation 1: Between the human resources strategy and organizational strategy, to create external coordination (vertical)

 

Equation 2: Between the human resources strategy and strategy of other organizational units to create external coordination (horizontal)

 

Equation 3: Between human resource strategies and subsystems of human resources, to create internal coordination (vertical)

 

Equation 4: between the subsystems of human resources, to create external coordination (horizontal)

 

Equation 5: between subsystems of human resource with organizational strategy to create external coordination (horizontal) form subsystems

 

7-11- Strategic background managed by human resource

 

In recent years, with the development of the concept of labor from a source device to a motive power of strategic plans, the attitude changes and operational human resource management gained increasing acceleration. These changes can be divided into three sub-periods:

 

7-11-1- period of operational insight

 

The attention to the importance of the labor force began in the early twentieth century, with titles such as welfare management and personnel management, in the form of scientific management theory, and with technical, qualitative and operational attitudes. In these years, the strategic knowledge had not entered the field of management from the military field. Therefore successful managers of human resources, with focus on internal affairs of their units, to respond to the needs of the company for survival, tried to overcome the greatest challenge of their advance, i.e. productivity. Researchers with the development of concepts such as ergometer and assessment methods, and through the design of operating systems, attempt to support the human resource executives in coordination of the internal systems of personnel (such as recruiting, evaluation, compensation, etc.). Although the movement of human relations in the decade 1930 to 1950, addressed other aspects related to workforce. But operational thinking in the field of human resources, continued even after the development and application of the concept of strategic planning within the organization (the mid-twentieth century). This means that not only this unit did not play a role in developing the organization's strategy, but also showed no particular reaction to the strategic requirements of the organization.

 

7-11-2- Period of rational strategic approach

 

Expansion of governmental, technological, economic, social and demographic changes, especially during the decades after the Second World War and 1970 created the basis for new issues like the expansion and complexity of competition, increasing heterogeneity in the Workforce and the changing nature of work. From early decades of 1980 that organizations turned to strategies like improving quality, reducing cost and flexibility to cope these challenges and achieve competitive management, the idea of developing a "strategy of human resources", in order to improve the attitude of the workforce, from the operational level to the strategic level, and coordination with the strategy was introduced. With the development of workforce management issues from unit level to organizational level, responsibility for the decision-making process was dragged to middle management level. In the way that, the strategic aspects of human resources, with rational approach and hierarchical method (top-down), became the basis of strategy formulation of human resource so that "strategic management of human resources", with providing major programs be considered as agent of change (and not just follower).

 

7-11-3- Period of of increasing strategic approach

 

In recent years, the development of a strategic approach in the field of human resources, gradually led to the emergence of challenges such as infrastructure for creativity and innovation, commitment, competence, flexibility and adaptability of the employee.This time by designing more qualitative issues that are far more crucial to the organization, senior managers (not just middle managers and operational), think about the acquisition of human superiority over other organizations, because they consider human factor not only a capital but an infinite wealth and very expandable. In this context, human resources management as a strategic partner is very effective in the process of formulating and implementing the organization's strategy. And with human resource Strategy formulation and in line with the organization's strategy (and not only consistent with it), deals with the permanent investigation of human resources in the external border. Therefore, in the human resources strategy formulation, the incremental approach with emphasis on human resource strategic reference points is used. Obviously, as mentioned, the three approaches above have been formed in an evolution in human resources management and are still valid. Therefore, not only they do not contradict each other, but in a hierarchical process, they are complementary to each other. Although the application of these three attitudes at the same time in all organizations, it is not necessary, but it depends on situations such as size, getting influenced by the environment or impact on the environment, Service Company (vs. production), the level of development of industry and so on. Thus, for example, for small organizations that does not get influenced by environmental variables, especially if they are productive, strategic planning human resources costs, perhaps may bring negative results.

 

(Aarabi 2002). 

 

 

 

7-12- methodologies of human resources strategy formulation

 

In fact, there is no standard method for the strategy formulation of human resources. In addition, the process of strategy formulation of human resources, is often as important was the strategy content. Because through working on strategic issues and highlighting the differences new ideas emerge that ultimately lead to an agreement on the goals of the organization (Armstrong, 1381).

 

Therefore, it is better that first the previous models of human resource strategy formulation, are investigated.

 

 

 

7-12-1- Rational or logical models (based on the strategy of the organization)

 

The first models for the strategy formulation human resources were designed in the mid-late 1980, with a rational, logical, technical, view and based on the "strategy of the organization". The one sided effectiveness of organizational strategy on human resource strategy in these models is shown in Figure No. 6 (Bamberger and Meshoulam, 1381).

 

 

 

Figure 8-2 the process of strategy formulation of human resources in rational models (logical)

 

These models are applicable only if that strategy of the organization are prepared and preprovided. In this case, errors and deviations in the process of formulating strategy of the organization will spread in human resources strategy. Obviously, elements of decision-making in these models, like the models of strategy formulation of organization, include the strengths and weaknesses (internal factors) and the opportunities and threats (external factors).

 

Among models of this type "Armstrong Model (1994)," can be named which is shown in table 22 (Armstrong, 2002).

 

 

Market development strategy of the

organization

 

Human             Resources Strategy

 

Market developme

nt

Produ

ct

devel opme

nt

integration ofnew technologie

s

Purchase /  Breakup

Plan

 

 

 

 

Provision

 

 

 

 

Development

 

 

 

 

Performance management 

 

 

 

 

Reward

 

 

 

 

Employeerelations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7-12-2-Increasing or real models (Based on special factors of human resource management)

 

From late 1980 models with either increasing or stepwise approaches were mentioned that in the process of developing human resource strategies, that pay more attention to political and institutional factors within and outside the organization more than calculations and technical and quantitative        factors.

 

These models also have provided the pattern of strategic human resources without a strategy of the organization. Because the decision making factors in them, include specific factors related to human resource management (ie, the labor market and how to control).

 

However, in cases where strategy of the organization exists, these models, by creating a two-way relationship, keep their coordination with it. This relationship is depicted in Figure No. 8-2

 

(Bamberger                                   and                                  Meshoulam                                  2002).

 

Figure No. 2-9 The process of strategy formulation of human resources in increasing patterns (real)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examples of these models are "the framework of Harvard (1984)" and "operating model and Holder (1988)", which is depicted in the figures No. 9-2 and 11-2 (Armstrong 2002).

 

 

 

These models, based on specific factors in accordance with the main philosophy of human resource management and management theory, briefly divided into two types:

 

7-13- models based on controlling workers

 

These modelsemphasize on "focus" which is considered the first axis in the philosophy of management theories. In human resources management, centralization is expressed as the process of controlling operations staff, and decentralization, as controlling the efficiency of the staff. Based on this, proposed strategies in these models are on a spectrum which the two ends are process control and efficiency control (product) and combined strategies are also between these two:

 

7-13-1 - Strategic models based on "control process": These strategies will be implemented for businesses that the production process or service delivery is simple, repetitive and contains certain standards or it is possible to determine standards for them. Therefore, its evaluation and control is easily done by the management and new employees without much training can replace the existing staff. For example, jobs such as construction workers,simple worker on the production line and simple administrative staff.

 

7-13-2- strategy models based on "efficiency control": these strategies are implemented for the jobs that the production process or service delivery, is complex and ambiguous. Thus, it is not possible to recommend accurate job descriptions for staff and since management is not able to control the process, therefore, by determining output index, controls the efficiency (product). For example, the head of an organization cannot determine standard for detailed decision making processes and analysis by a specialist or a doctor in the design of a structure or treatment of a patient. But with determining the general duties and standards for the produced product or the treated patient, have control over how their performance.

 

Strategies proposed by three single dimension models based on the control of employees, in figures 2-11, 2-12 and 2-13 have been introduced on the control spectrum efficiency / process(Bamberger and Meshoulam 1 381).

 

 

 

7-14- models based on the labor market

 

These models, emphasize the factor "attention the inside and outside" the second axis that is considered important in the philosophy of management theories. In human resources management, attention to inside is done by emphasis on the labor market within the organization and attention to outside is by emphasis on the labor market outside the organization. Based on this, the proposed strategies in these models are on a spectrum which at the two ends of the spectrum are the labor markets within and outside the Organization and the company's strategy is between            them.

 

7-14-1 Strategic Patterns based on "inside the labor market» (ILM): These strategies will be implemented for the jobs of that for them human resources are as "assets" therefore, while maintaining them, their value should be increased through training and development. In these strategies for filling vacant posts, the method of upgrading existing staff is used. Examples of these strategies are normally seen in organizations where they offer permanent employment to their employees. But in advanced mode the approach of "human resource accounting" dominates. So the value of the employeesis recorded in the balance sheet as the most important capital. And the example is pricing the players and buying and selling them in sports clubs.

 

7-14-2- Strategic models based on "External Labor Market » (ELM): These strategies will be implemented for the jobs that human resource is considered as a "variable cost", therefore, there is no insist on maintaining them and in proper time most appropriate forces should be taken with cheapest price from the market. In these strategies to fill vacancies, the best people should be hired from the labor market outside of the company. This strategy is normally manifested as buying temporary wage workers or signing short-term contracts with experts and specialist consultants. But in advanced mode, it becomes the "virtual organization". So that in these organizations, a wide range of operations are carried out by experts outside of physical environment of the organization simply by the use of new communication technologies.

 

Strategies proposed by three single dimension models based on the labor market, are introduced in figures 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, on the labor market range of internal/external. (Bamberger and Meshoulam 2002).

 

 

 

7-15 the integrated model of human resources strategy formulation

 

Peter Baumberger and Len Meshoulam (2000), in the book "Human Resource Strategy (formulation, implementation, impact)", with the integration of models based on the staff control and based on the labor market, introduced a two-dimensional model, called "integrated approach", according to which, the decision model of human resources strategy has two main questions as Strategic Reference Points (SRPs) (Bamberger and Meshoulam. 2002). As you can see in Table 3-2 by answering these two questions, four species of human resources strategy are achieved.

 

 

 

The formulation process of this model is based on increasing approach but some of the tools of rational attitude are used in it. As depicted in Figure No. 1- 7-2; Strategic Reference Points (SRPs) as an interface loop, with a scientific approach convert the tendencies of political power in the organization to human resource strategies (Bamberger and Meshoulam 2002). These points include the characteristics of jobs, characteristics expected of employees and the characteristics of human resource subsystems. They must be considered.

 

7-6 characteristics of strategic pattern of integrated model

 

1 - Secondary strategy: This strategy is appropriate for simple, repetitive and standard jobs that labor force required for them can be found sufficiently outside the company in the labor market and development and maintenance of these workers is not necessary. In other words if they are not needed or in case dissatisfaction with any of the employees they could be easily cut off cooperation and if necessary, new employees with minimum training can replace them.

 

2. Paternal strategy: This strategy is also used for simple, repetitive and standard jobs. The only difference is that the management of the company desires to maintain and upgrade existing staff and coordinate them with the company's organizational culture. So, in case of vacancy by promoting existing employees they fill the posts.

 

3. Contractor strategy

 

This strategy is appropriate for those jobs that are specialized complex that recruitment of permanent and official expertsimposes high costs on the Company, because the company needs these jobs for a short time and temporary. Thus, these experts are invited to cooperate usually with huge amounts of money, just for advice or a part of a project, and after the end of the project, again to return to the labor market to serve in similar cases.Some organizations (particularly virtual organizations), resolve their permanent need of experts by temporary service and distance service of these experts. Because management of these organizations have been able to completely control the specific knowledge of the organization and provide the tools to evaluate and improve it.

 

4. Committed strategy

 

 This strategy is also used those jobs that are specialized complex with the difference that the experts working in this organizations are constantly needed and since in many cases, this experts, form the complex network of firm-specific knowledge replacing them is simply not possible. Therefore it is necessary, to have an effective approach to labor inside the organization, it means the development and training of experts and reinforcing their commitment and loyalty to the organization. So that the mentioned experts for a safe and dynamic future career, ignore the higher salaries and benefits of outer labor market. (Bamberger and Meshoulam 2002).

 

8. Results

 

After analysis of the data using SPSS and collecting 160 questionnaires from the municipal staff at different levels, the results showed the effectiveness of research factors include personal factors (attitude of employees, age and experience, personal characteristics and physiological needs.), environmental factors (management style, working groups, job training, etc.), occupational factors (assessment, type of employment, promotions system, etc.) and organizational factors (salary, policy, and socialization, organizational justice, etc.) and buy using using t test , Friedman test. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Cronbach's alpha for reliability, all assumptions were confirmed and the factors have significant impact on the management strategies.

 

Table of results of research

 

 

 

Variables (factors)

Respondents

Mean

 

Standard deviation

P-

Value

Individual

481

08.3

398.0

375.2

Organizational

481

4.3

354.0

301.3

Careers

481

01.3

302.0

454.1

Environmental

 

481

07.3

07.4

416.2

 

 

 

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[1] -Introduction

Considering the strategic position of human resources for the municipalities an important part of strategic planning in this field is dedicated to human resource management. One of the most important issues that should be considered in strategic planning and human resource management are the principles and values, prevailing in the country, especially in urban management. And nowadays the tools to achieve sustainable development should not be searched in the human resources and industrial capabilities but in the Knowledge and experience in human resources as the most important capital to realize the organizational goals. And without a doubt if the company properly uses the power and strategic approaches to make good use of skilled and committed human sources and benefits from this valuable asset in the economic, social and cultural development, even with having the most advanced capabilities will not be able to achieve sustainable development goals (Tarafi, Abbas 2007).  In this study we tried to determine the criteria of human resource management strategies by studying books and articles, and then to analyze the indicators, use of statistical techniques.

 

 

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